A battery management system (BMS) is any electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or battery pack), such as by protecting the battery from operating outside its Safe Operating Area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment, authenticating it and / or balancing it.
Today’s batteries deliver a lot of current while maintaining a constant voltage, which can lead to a runaway condition that causes the battery to catch fire. The chemicals used to construct a battery are highly volatile, and a battery impaled with the right object can result in the battery catching fire. Temperature measurements are not just used for safety conditions, they can also be used to determine if it’s desirable to charge or discharge a battery.
Temperature sensors monitor each cell for energy storage system (ESS) applications or a grouping of cells for smaller and more portable applications. Thermistors powered by an internal ADC voltage reference are commonly used to monitor each circuit’s temperature. The internal voltage reference is used to reduce inaccuracies of the temperature reading versus environmental temperature changes.
The sensor reads voltage, current and temperature to estimate state-of-charge and detect anomalies.
Some features of BMS: 1. Intelligent comfort systems 2. Artificial intelligent sysytems like occupancy sensors, temperature sensors etc. are used to sense the temperature increase and the presence of occupants to decide comfort level required to achieve the optimum conditions.